November  2013 1
Exploring the Developing Formation of the Hakka Community in Southern China
作者 林正慧
Author Cheng-hui Lin
關鍵詞 華南、客家形成、邊緣客域、中心客區
Keywords Southern China, Formation of the Hakka Community, Peripheral Hakka, Central Hakka
摘要 華南客家的形塑過程,有一個文化共性的形成時期,之後才有第二階段的客方言群意識覺醒期。約於宋元之際,閩粵贛邊區已形成有共同方言與地域文化的一群人,但當時並未被以「客」名之。明清時期,閩粵贛邊區人口飽和,加上清初遷海復界之後,大量客方言人群向粵東沿海或珠江三角洲一帶流徙。在這些客方言人群外移的邊緣,客方言人群與以廣府方言為主的「本地人」之關係遂逐漸緊張,進而在19世紀以降頻頻發生「土客衝突」,且在廣府人書寫的志書當中,多被指為「非漢」之種族。土客衝突以及以非漢污蔑客方言移民的情形,引起客方言士子關注,於是為「客」(客方言人群)溯源,強調客方言人群乃中原衣冠舊族,方言亦為中原古音。在此過程中,適逢西教東傳,於是以客方言地域為傳教重心的巴色會傳教士們也共同參與為「客」溯源的行列,於是約在18世紀中葉,中文的「客家」與西文的Hakka有了指涉相同人群的意涵。客方言士子與西方傳教士為「邊緣客域」的客方言人群溯源美名之後,為「客家」意識回流「中心客區」(嘉應州)舖好了溫床,到了光緒末年的《嘉應州志》,我們已可看出「中心客區」如何思索由文獻中找出「中心客區」為「客」名所出的各種可能。「客家」意識回流「中心客區」之後,開始讓由「中心客區」向外離散的客家有了認同的媒介,清末民初客家人士積極參與城市活動與革命建國等行動,逐漸累積政經實力的同時,面對一次又一次的「非漢」污衊,更讓「客家」的意識與認同得以抬頭,也讓海內外客屬有了清楚的以方言認同的媒介。
Abstract The developing formation of the Hakka community in Southern China could be divided into two stages: the formation of common culture and the awakening of the Hakka consciousness. During the 13th century, a group of people who had the same dialect and culture inhabited in cluster along the border area of Fujian, Guangdong, and Jiangxi provinces; however they didn't call themselves “the Hakkas” at that time. During the Ming-Qing period, there was an excessive population in the border area of Fujian, Guangdong, and Jiangxi, so the Qing government opened up the coastal areas for them to live in. As a result, a great number of the people who spoke the Hakka dialect moved to the east coastal areas of Guangdong, commonly known as the Pearl River Delta. As they lived away from home and rented lands from the local residents, who spoke Standard Cantonese, conflicts inevitably occurred. By the 19th century, conflicts between the local residents and the Hakkas broke out more frequently. Moreover, in the historical records written by the Cantonese, the immigrants who spoke the Hakka dialect were described as “fei-han” (not the Han people). Such biased documents on conflicts and the discrimination caused the Hakka literati to be concerned about the truth of their lineage. The Hakka elites vigorously asserted that their ancestors came from China's Central Plain, the core birthplace of the Chinese civilization. They emphasized that their dialect originated from the ancient language of the Central Plain, too. In the meantime, the Basel Catholic missionaries, who proselytized in the area, also took part in the developing formation of the Hakka community and culture. As a consequence, the “peripheral Hakka” became the “center Hakka,” at least in the Ziaying prefecture.


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