May  2014 2
The Timorese Hakka in Australia: Community and the Internet
作者 周丹尼、黃靜蓉
Author Daniel Chew, J. Sonia Huang
關鍵詞 東帝汶客家、想像共同體、歷史、文化認同、社會組織、網際網路
Keywords Timorese Hakka, Imagined Community, History, Cultural Identity, Social Associations, the Internet
摘要 東帝汶客家人在澳洲是一種被迫的流離失所。長期接受葡萄牙殖民統治的東帝汶於1975年被印尼入侵和占領,有長達25年的時間,當地內戰不斷,造成數以萬計的人民死亡。其中不少華人(客家人居多)因印尼排華政策,紛紛以難民或移民的身分,投奔到鄰近的澳洲。因此本研究企圖檢驗東帝汶客家人在澳洲如何重建和想像自己成為一個共同體,我們發現東帝汶客家人受到過去歷史和文化,如葡萄牙殖民政策、台灣中文教育、和印尼佔領等因素交錯影響,逐步形塑其特有的想像共同體。當然,澳洲活躍的社團組織也為離鄉背井的個人和家庭提供社交和娛樂的新環境。

Abstract The Timorese (also known as East Timorese) Hakka diaspora in Australia is a consequence of recent waves of migration sparked by civil war and subsequent Indonesian intervention and rule on the island from 1975 to 1999. This paper examines how the Timorese Hakka re-established themselves as a community in Australia, particularly in Melbourne. It is argued that the imagined community of the Timorese Hakka in Australia has been shaped by a mix of historical and cultural factors. Portuguese colonial rule, the role of Taiwan's assistance in providing Chinese education, Indonesian rule and recent migration to Australia are historical influences on this imagined community. Cultural markers for the Timorese Hakka are the Hakka language and Mandarin, and mixed cultural forms influenced by a long period of Portuguese colonial rule on East Timor. Finally, social associations were set up by the community after arriving in Australia and, still functioning vibrantly, enable individuals and families to establish social bonds and relationships in a new environment.

Historical and cultural factors influence the Timorese Hakka to consider themselves as a distinct community in Australia. However, there are also indications that the Timorese Hakka use the Internet to reinforce feelings of community and holding a shared ancestry and common background. Thus, the Internet has a role in helping to shape the cultural identity of the Timorese Hakka in Australia. The first generation Timorese Hakka elders, who are concerned with the loss of their cultural identity, have been adept in connecting their real and virtual communities through the Internet and relying on conventional physical interactions through the social associations.


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