November  2014 3
Concentration Camp or Freedom Zone? Narrative Histories of mid-20th Century Chinese Refugees in Indonesia
作者 蔡晏霖
Author Yen-ling Tsai
關鍵詞 印尼、亞齊、難民、敘事、例外空間、1965-66大屠殺、海外客家
Keywords Indonesia, Aceh, Alien Chinese, Refugees, 1965-66 Massacres, Overseas Hakka
摘要 20世紀中葉的印尼,尤其是蘇門答臘島省的亞齊,曾爆發一系列的「排華暴動」,上萬名原居亞齊各地的華人(多數為客裔族群)被迫遠離亞齊,成為難民。本文嘗試將這些「亞齊難僑」的敘事置放於20世紀中葉的印尼與亞際區域歷史中,回溯性地詮釋他們在二戰後種種國族與跨國勢力的夾縫中曾經遭逢的危機與困境,以期理解印尼華人如何在流離經驗中協商其歸屬感。透過書報、回憶錄、口述歷史等材料,本文嘗試重建亞齊華人社群在1965-67年間的流亡過程,揣摩難僑如何透過共禦外侮、共耕共食、共同產銷的集體生活模式在棉蘭重建異地歸屬,並且在離開集中營後仍以「亞齊難僑」身分不斷詮釋過去並確認認同。與其將難僑視為在「中國」、「台灣」與「印尼」認同之間掙扎的個人,我嘗試回溯性地探索他們在二戰後新帝國主義與冷戰架構,以及東南亞與中國去殖民並尋求第三世界認同…等交織的歷史過程中逐漸成形的多元認同與矛盾。
Abstract The decolonization of Indonesia during the period of 1945-1966 had
a profound impact on its local Chinese community. It was during this time that the trans-border social geography of overseas Chinese or 'Huaqiao' gradually became fractured by the geography of the newly independent nation-states. Blending oral history narratives with news archives and manuscripts, this paper revisits the exodus of non-native Chinese from Aceh to Medan during the period 1965-67, and attempts to understand their lives inside the various makeshift refugee camps that peppered the suburban Medan. Paying special attention to the modes of collective production and consumption being experimented with in the camps, this paper demonstrates the extent to which such experiences of social suffering remain a powerful source of identity for ex-refugees even until today. I argue that this strong sense of identity can only be understood by situating Chinese-Indonesians within the complex and intersecting trajectories of de-colonization, imperialism, and the formation of the cold war.


2013 Global Hakka Studies © All RIGHTS RESERVED.