November  2015 5
The Localization of Hakka Ethnic Identity and Boundaries in French Polynesia
作者 姜貞吟
Author Chen-yin Chiang
關鍵詞 客家、玻里尼西亞、大溪地、族群邊界、族群認同、揉雜性
Keywords Hakka, Polynesia, Tahiti, Ethnic Boundary, Ethnic Identity, Hybridity
摘要 自19世紀中期起,客家人因不同因素移往法屬玻里尼西亞,在長達3-6代移居史裡,歷經當地多次族群政策重要變遷以及與當地人群、文化長期互動來往影響下,客家族群邊界與認同已漸朝向在地化表現。大溪地客家族群邊界與族群認同有著內部變化與外部威脅兩種發展歷程,前者主要為「從華人到客家人」、「從苦力到從商」與「從客人到主人」的三種內部變化;後者則是「客家宗姓的法文化」、「華人離散的召喚」與「疆界消失的全球化」的外部威脅。本研究主要收集大溪地客家族群遷移過程、族群認同變化情形,研究發現與先前研究結果已略有不同,因國際政經與當地社會變遷等因素,新世代展現不同的族群與國族認同,並在文化上表現出多元揉雜性。
Abstract It has been nearly 150 years since the mid-nineteenth century when Hakka people emigrated for various reasons to French Polynesia. During this period, there have been several waves of emigration. The first waves of immigrants mostly cultivated vanilla, sugarcane, and cotton; most of them returned to their original villages. Later immigrants settled long term, with most of them opening small grocery stores or supermarkets or working in the garment or food sectors or in public services; these immigrants already had considerable influence at different levels of Tahitian society. During an emigration history that continued three to five generations and after several critical changes to local policies on ethnicity and the effect of long-term interaction with the local people and culture, Hakka ethnic identity and boundaries were already gradually shifting towards localization. The ethnic identity and boundaries of Hakka people in French Polynesia underwent several courses of internal changes and external threats. The internal changes included transformations, adaptations, and localization and mainly entailed changes from Chinese to Hakka, hard laborer to merchant, and guest to host. The external threats included changes regarding customs, diasporas, and globalization and in particular how French has influenced the surnames of Hakka people, the call of overseas Chinese, and the disappearing of boundaries through globalization.
Over the past 30 years, Hakka Polynesian people, under the impact of internal and external changes, have been writing about and recording their experiences and re-presenting Hakka ethnic culture. Those of Hakka ethnicity, as social integrators and preservers of their ethnic culture, and the Polynesians have mutually influenced each other, particularly regarding commerce, food culture, and daily habits. This study compiles and studies the Hakka emigration process and the transformation of ethnic and national identity in Tahiti, discovering that, because of factors such as international politics, economics, and social changes, the ethnic identity of the Hakka people in French Polynesia is already slightly different from that indicated in previous studies. The new generation exhibits a different ethnic and national identity and shows cultural hybridity.


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