November  2015 5
The Land Reclamation Process and Agency of the Northern Hakka Immigrants Who Moved to Teofunpu, Pingtung City
作者 洪馨蘭、徐孝晴
Author Hsin-lan Hung , Hsiao-ching Hsu
關鍵詞 屏東市、北客、再移民、聚落化、能動性
Keywords Pingtung, Northern Hakka, Re-immigrants, Settlement Dwelling, Agency
摘要 屏東市在二十世紀上半葉因其軍事與商業功能發展,成為南臺灣重要的人口移入區。不僅周邊閩南方言群以地主之姿獲得政商優勢位置,島內其他農業地區擠壓出來的外移人口,也成為屏東市再移民多元文化的基礎,其中包括萬年溪畔聚集的北客。屏東市北客群為自由移民,有一小群聚集在萬年溪上游的頭分埔這個地方,由於該地區在都市計畫下今日已經變成繁華的住商區域,再加上一直缺乏文獻記載與挖掘,所知者不眾。頭分埔庄頭公廟華山萬福宮建於1956年,本文注意到北客為建廟參與的重要組成,因此成為這項研究觀察的切入點。研究發現,頭分埔北客在1920年代在這個位於屏東市與六堆社會雙重邊緣的夾縫區位,展現社會適應之能動性,不僅吸納來自傳統平埔部落區帶來的神明、客籍成為服事神明的乩童、積極請神降壇服務村民,更集結閩方言群的資金及地方政治勢力,共構形成頭分埔村莊核心。透過此核心的運籌帷幄,頭分埔北客對於早期南遷時期的過往與傳說,包括竹林墓塚地理環境,以及與東興巷另一北客聚集區之間的關係等,都尚有口述與部分遺跡可尋。本文即透過整理口述記憶與找出相關訊息予以比對論述,嘗試重建頭分埔北客在屏東市東北隅的聚落化過程,以及背後呈現北客在再移民過程中強韌之生活特徵。
Abstract Pingtung City was once the center of immigration in Southern Taiwan due to its commercial development and military base distribution at the beginning of the 20th century. Most landowners were Hoklo(福佬); they held the political and commercial power. The “northern Hakka” immigrants and those who resided in Liudui(六堆), the traditional “southern Hakka” community, both in charge of some cultivation, formed a multi-cultural society with the Hoklo. The northern Hakka immigrants mainly lived along the Wannian River(萬年溪), i.e. Teofunpu(頭分埔). No historical record was found in the literature; people only knew that the Wannfu Temple(萬福宮) of the village was built in the middle of the 20th century. It was the spiritual and ceremonial site of local residents. Taking the Temple as the focus, the aim of the study is to explore how the local Hakka demonstrated their high level of social adaptation. For instance, by accepting gods from Pingpu(平埔), the aboriginal tribe, and playing the mediumistic role of serving the worshippers. They shared the capital and political power with the Hoklo, and governed the village together. They tried to preserve the historical legends of their ancestors so that their traditions could be passed down. The original landscape, daily utensils and connection with other villages were all recorded. By analyzing the records and understanding how the Temple was renovated, this feature of the northern Hakka immigrants and their relationship with other villages is illustrated, revealing its social cognitive strategy.


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