May  2016 6
Phonological and Lexical Investigation and Comparative Studies on Hakka in Sungai Tapang, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
作者 吳中杰、陳素秋
Author Al Chung-chieh Wu and Su-chiew Tan
關鍵詞 砂拉越、甲港、客語、河婆話、音韻、詞彙
Keywords Sarawak, Hakka, Sungai Tapang, Hopo Accent, Phonology, Lexicon
摘要 砂拉越古晉地區的客家話在局部占有優勢,尤其石角區、石隆門與西連一帶。本文主要是調查砂拉越古晉石角區甲港的客家話,並比較與其他客語的異同之處。音韻上,本文擬討論以下幾個議題:1.甲港客語的v-轉讀為b-聲母;2.曉匣母「䘆狹脇」梅縣客語讀h-的,甲港客語為kˇ-;3.蟹開二四等「鞋矮弟泥雞」河婆唸-e而大埔為-ai的系統對應;4.濁去歸陰上的聲調規律,而少數次濁去字則歸陰去。本文探討甲港借入之馬來語、英語、潮州話、粵語來源詞,並和其他相似度高的印尼加里曼丹山口洋硬話與屏東林仔內河婆話進行比較分析。馬來西亞境內的甲港語言因該國之社會文化而有特色,加上部分詞彙的創新發展,使得其他國家的客家人必須了解其背景,方能掌握其意義及用法。
Abstract Chinese community in Kuching Sarawak is largely composed of Fujian, Chaozhou, and Hakka. The common languages in urban area are Hokkien or Teochew. While a significant number of people speaking Hakka in Kuching area, especially in the rural, such as Batu Kawa district, Bau and Serian.
The major ancestral homelands of Hakka in Kuching are Tai Poo,
Huiyang, Jiexi, Haifeng, Lufeng, and many other places in Guangdong.
Hopo, a dialect of Hakka, spoken in Batu Kawa is always mingled with different tribes and different Chinese dialects due to geographical factors.
After a long period of time, its lexicon is highly influenced by ethnic integration and borrowing words from foreign vocabulary. This essay aims to analyze interesting phonological and lexical aspects in Sungai Tapang, being influenced by Malay, English, Chaozhou, and Cantonese.
Meanwhile, we analyze Hakka spoken in other countries for comparative studies, for example, those in Singkawang, Indonesia and Linzinei, Taiwan. We find that Hakka dialects used in these two places are pretty similar to Hakka in Sungai Tapang. No one speaks Cantonese in Sungai Tapang, but surprisingly, our analysis reveals that the daily-life vocabulary of Hakka also borrows some words from Cantonese. In this way, it can be assumed that the linguistic changes are affected by immigration and daily language contacts.
Furthermore, the Cantonese drama was popular from 1970s to 1990s.
Cantonese words were lent to Hakka unconsciously and started to have pervasive usages. If the mother language cannot be learned completely, its tone and phonotactics can be interfered and new vocabulary is generated as a
result. The ‘Hakka' language in Malaysia is unique, and its innovative situation is worth further exploring and better understanding.


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