November  2017 9
頁數:159-182
馬來西亞福佬人和客家人的關係探析:以檳城美湖水長華人義山墓碑為考察中心
The Relationship between Hoklo and Hakka in Malaysia: A Study of Tombstones in Gertak Sanggul and Tanjong Asam Chinese Cemeteries in Penang
作者 陳愛梅
Author Ai Boay Tan
關鍵詞 義山、墓碑、海陸豐、客家
Keywords Cemetery, Tombstones, Hakka, Hoklo
摘要 這篇論文主要使用華人義山墓碑的資料,建構馬來西亞檳城的地方史。研究者在2015年4月針對「美湖水長華人義山」進行全面性調查,發現有碑記的墓碑413個,其中339個可辨識其籍貫,74個無籍貫,或無法辨識;63個沒有墓碑。結合檔案、報章、僑批、神祖牌和口述歷史等,這篇論文探討美湖福佬人或客家人的昔與今,並分析同地緣群體械鬥的原因,認為方言群的差異並不是造成敵對的原因,美湖村的結盟是以同祖系的宗族為核心,再擴大到同姓氏且同地緣。這篇論文使用地當人的認知,結合到中國原鄉的考證,將美湖的「海陸豐話」歸為潮語系。在缺乏菁英領導,沒有宗祠或會館的鄉區展開歷史的探索和次族群互動的研究是困難的,這篇論文嘗試向這類研究投石問路。
Abstract This paper examines the history of Penang by utilizing epigraphical materials in Chinese cemeteries in Tanjang Asam. The Chinese cemeteries in Gertak Sanggul and Tanjong Asam were comprehensively investigated during April 2015. In addition to tombstones, British official records, newspapers, Qiaopi (letters from China), ancestral tables, and oral histories were studied to reveal the history of Hoklo and Hakka people in Gertak Sanggul. The paper uncovers the history of Hoklo and Hakka in Gertak Sanggul and analyzes the rivalry between people who came from the same area of China. The research found that clan was the most important alliance. This alliance extended to people with the same surname and who came from the same area. Interestingly, different dialects did not create hostility. This study endeavors to examine the history of overseas Chinese and the interaction of ethnic subgroups in rural areas where the elite leadership and huiguan are absent.

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