November  2020 15
賀州客家生態博物館: 從空間論思考「活的博物館」
Hakka Eco-museum in Hezhou: Spatial Perspective on a “Living Museum”
作者 河合洋尚、湯紹玲、梁志敏
Author Kawai Hironao, Shaoling Tang and Zhimin Liang
關鍵詞 生態博物館、廣西民族博物館、客家、賀州、「場所」與居民
Keywords Eco-museum, Anthropology Museum of Guangxi, Hakka, Hezhou, Place
摘要 本文為筆者對賀州客家生態博物館的記錄和思考。賀州市位於廣西壯族自治區東北部,是廣西境內客家人比較集中的地區。為了建設廣西民族生態博物館「1 + 10」工程,2007年地方政府、學者、博物館人員開始在賀州市建設一座大型生態博物館。這座博物館可以說是世界上最早的客家生態博物館。實際上是按照建設計畫將賀州城區郊外的客家居住地——蓮塘鎮仁沖村、白花村指定為一座生態博物館,保護村裡的圍屋等傳統建築,同時設立核心館(core-museum),在此展示本地收集的生活文物(或稱老物件)。2017年6月筆者一行到賀州客家生態博物館進行了田野調察,2020年9月筆者再次前往該地做了補充調查。本文通過文獻資料和田野考察實踐,介紹這座生態博物館的基本情況,繼續思考生態博物館是什麼?在與日本的生態博物館進行比較思考的基礎上,提出非純客家的和被動的「客家空間」的相關問題,梳理以客家文化定義的生態博物館的「場所」與當地居民的文化關係,借此探討客家生態博物館的現狀與未來。
Abstract This paper aims to introduce an eco-museum in Hezhou, located in northeastern of Guangxi province, Mainland China and populated with a large number of Hakka people. This large scale eco-museum was built under the “1+ 10” project of Guanxi ethnic eco-museums in 2007. The area of this eco-museum covers two villages: Renchong village, and Baihua village in Liantang town, Hezhou. This museum can be described as the earliest Hakka eco-museum in the world, where some Weiwu (traditional closed homestead) was protected as a satellite museum, and a core museum was built to display local cultural materials. We conducted fieldwork twice in this museum, first in June 2017 and then in September 2020. In accordance with the field data and related literature, we outline the Hakka eco-museum of Hezhou and compare it with those in Japan. In particular, although this museum is represented as a “Hakka space”, several non-Hakka people livethere, while some typical Hakka cultural symbols (such as Tolou architecture) are not existed. This paper thus discusses the need to pay closer attention to the relationship between local people and “place” in future Hakka eco-museums.


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