May  2021 16
From Kheh to Hakka: The Process and Influence of the Hakka Self-identification in Jiaying Zhou
作者 林正慧
Author Cheng-hui Lin
關鍵詞 客家、客人、福佬、嘉應州、中心客區
Keywords Hakka, Ke-lang, Khak, Hoklo, Jiaying Zhou, Hakka core area
摘要 中心客區基於行政區劃與地理形勢,由於與粵東福佬的互動較早亦較為密切,因此在接受「客家」自稱之前,其實曾經歷經一個「客人」稱謂由他稱到自稱的過程。若比較「客人」、「客家」兩個不同脈絡的認同,「客人」的他者是粵東福佬,較早成為客方言人群的自稱,且隨著移民的腳步,在東南亞、臺灣皆可看到與福佬互動之「客」稱,在臺灣甚至已有以「客」為自稱之事例。「客家」的他者是廣府人,先發生於邊緣客域,再反饋回中心客區。「客人」自稱接受較早,且是與福佬直接互動而來,較有親近性,而「客家」自稱,則是為承受中西論說祖溯中原而採用者,是於光緒末年,藉由《嘉應州志》的論述一步到位。採用初時雖較為隔閡,但在確認客家定位後,歷經一次又一次的受侮事件中強化認同,且將客家認同向外發散。
Abstract Because of the administrative division and geographical situation, early Hakka people in the Hakka core area interacted with the Hoklo people in east Guangdong closely. Therefore before accepting the self-proclaimed “Hakka”, Hakka People had experienced a period that they were named as “Kheh” or “Ke-lang”, and then they called themselves “Khak”. In this paper, we compare the identification of “Kheh” (or “Ke-lang”) and “Hakka” in two different contexts: “Kheh” was first used by the Hoklo people in east Guangdong to call those who spoke Hakka dialect, and, second, with the pace of immigration, the same appellation was also found in Southeast Asia and Taiwan. “Hakka” used by Cantonese people to call those which spoke Hakka dialect, first appeared in the junction zone of Cantonese people and people who spoke Hakka dialect, and then spread to the Hakka core area.
People speaking Hakka dialect identified themselves as “Khak”, which was earlier than “Hakka”, and “Khak” , from “Kheh” (or “Ke-lang”), was the result of interaction with Hoklo, seems more friendly than “Hakka”. People speaking Hakka dialect identified themselves as “Hakka” had another meaning, they tried to use this appellation strengthening the link between their ancestors who lived in the north. This theory was established in “Jiaying ZhouZhi” in the last years of Guangxu. Although the adoption of “Hakka” was relatively isolated at the beginning, after the Hakka positioning was confirmed, and repeatedly insulted, the identity was strengthened, and the Hakka identity diverged outward.


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