May  2021 16
Ngai People between Ethnic Ngai and Ethnic Hoa in Vietnam
作者 徐富美
Author Fu-mei Hsu
關鍵詞 越南、艾人、艾族、華族、認同
Keywords Ngai People, Ethnic Hoa, Ethnic Ngai, Identity, Vietnam
摘要 越南艾人是客家人的一支,是從中國移民到越南的一個族群。越南艾人在族群劃分上呈現歧異現象,分別屬於華族和艾族。本論文從三方面探討越南「艾族」與「華族中的艾人」原本屬於同一個族群;分屬兩個不同民族來自越南的政治歷史背景。主要有兩個歷史背景,一個與1947-1954年的儂族自治區有關,一個與1978-1979年的中越戰爭有關。越南艾人的認同產生轉變,有四個促發因素。在政治上,與越南的排華情緒有關;在經濟上,越南對艾族有優惠政策而華族沒有;在民族政策上,與艾人的艾族意識有關;個別情況則與艾人「小農經濟」的生活思維有關。
Abstract Ngai people in Vietnam are a branch of Hakka who immigrated to Vietnam from Mainland China. They belong to two different ethnic groups, namely ethnic Hoa and ethnic Ngai. This paper investigates the two different groups of Ngai people from three aspects and shows that they originally belonged to the same ethnic group. Their divergence in ethnic grouping is due to socio-political factors. One is related to the Nong Autonomous Region from 1947 to 1954, and the other is related to the Sino-Vietnamese War in 1978-1979. The anti-Chinese political sentiment, the economic concessions, the ethnic policy in Vietnam and the ‘peasant economy' thinking in some Ngai people are four contributors to the transformation of identity in Ngai people.


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