November  2022 19
Acoustic Study of Taiwanese Hailu Hakka Tone Values in Isolation
作者 黃雯君、余秀敏
Author Wen-jun Huang and Hsiu-min Yu
關鍵詞 臺灣海陸客語、單字調、調值、聲學語音學
Keywords Taiwan Hailu Hakka, Tones in Isolation, Tone Values, Acoustic Phonetics
摘要 本文利用2位女性和2位男性母語人士的單字調聲學數據,為海陸客語單字調提出客觀描述,訂定其調值,並與前人的研究結果進行比較。我們控制目標調例字的元音、出現情境及次數,以Wavesurfer 和 Matlab取其基頻及調長數值,並加以正規化。研究結果顯示,海陸客語的調值分別為:陰平/52/,上聲/35/,陰去/31/,陰入/55/,陽平/55/,陽去/33/,和陽入/42/。相較於前人的研究,本研究的三個降調/52/、/31/、/42/有較大的頻寬和降幅,尤其/31/在大部分研究定為低平調。上升調方面,/35/比多數記為/13/或/24/的調值更高。平調/55/、/33/、/55/則和多數研究一致。調長方面,陽去/33/最長,除與上聲/35/無顯著差異外,比其餘五調長許多。最後,陽去/33/的最長調長及調形軌跡透露其產出對母語人士來說,也是費力的。
Abstract This study describes the contour shapes and tone values of Taiwanese Hailu Hakka (THH) tones in isolation using acoustic data on the tones of monosyllabic words spoken by two female and two male native speakers. Our results show that THH has (1) three falling tones, /52/, /31/, and /42/, indicating wider pitch ranges and sharper falling slopes compared with the results of previous studies; (2) one mid-rising /35/ tone, with higher on- and offset pitch heights than /13/ and /24/, respectively, values that were reported in previous studies; and (3) three level tones, /33/, /55/, and /55/, similar to the values suggested in previous studies. The /33/ tone lasts much longer than the other tones. This increased duration along with a slightly dipping contour suggests that effort is required even by native speakers to maintain the mid-level pitch contour of the /33/ tone.


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